The messenger substance GcMAF
The immune system uses signal substances, such as interferons, for internal message forwarding. The conveyed messages can trigger specific effects, regulatory functions or process cascades in the target cells.
GcMAF is one of the body’s own signal substances. Scientific studies have shown that GcMAF is produced by the immune system and prompts T cells or macrophages to attack tumors.
Our technically produced GcMAF is identical to the body’s own and can be administered in suitable dosages to strengthen the immune system.
The immune system uses its own substances, so-called cytokines (interferons, interleukins, etc.), for internal communication. In a manner similar to classic hormones, these substances prompt specific effects or regulatory functions in the target cells. In other words, a message – an information or a command – is delivered. The body runs its messaging system mainly in two ways. The message can, simply stated, be transmitted electrically, for example when nerve cells communicate with one another. Alternatively, the message can be sent in the form of chemical messengers (interferons, interleukins, chemokines) that are conducted from the sender via the blood stream or the lymphatic system to the receiver. These chemical signal substances always elicit a very specifically defined reaction in the receiver. This has the advantage that the signal cannot be misinterpreted. These substances mostly do not interfere actively with processes such as tumor growth or cellular destruction. They are messages or commands or even hidden measurement data that can prompt a process cascade in the target cells. The immune system is localized in the blood and consists of a multitude of cells, which are connected in an extremely efficient manner with one another via this complex chemical message system.
Among of the first signal substances to be discovered were the interferons (Latin: interferre: to transmit something between two places). Interferons, which were discovered in 1957 by Isaacs and Lindenmann, are produced by cells of the immune system, such as leucocytes, and are used for internal communication. In a broader sense, they prompt an immune response if, for example, somatic cells are infected by viruses or if somatic cells become tumors. These somatic cells are then attacked and destroyed by specialized cells in the immune system, such as B cells or T cells. B cells or T cells are activated through interferons.
What is GcMAF
Another class of signal substances in the immune system was recently discovered: GcMAF. GcMAF means “Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor”. Gc is an older name for DBP, the so-called vitamin D binding protein, a substance in the body with manifold characteristics. DBP ensures transport of vitamin D and is used by cells in the immune system for the production of GcMAF, a factor that serves as signal substances in the immune system, like interferons. Through GcMAF, a process chain is set into motion to grapple with invading foreign matter such as viruses, bacteria, and environmental toxins or carcinogenic changes in the cell.
GcMAF in scientific studies
GcMAF has recently been very much in the focus of scientific and popular literature and is the object of many discussions that have partially led to conflicting results.
Yamamoto (Yamamoto et al. 1993, Yamamoto 1994, Yamamoto 1996, Yamamoto et al. 2008a) and others (Mohamad et al. 2003) have reported on the isolation, structure elucidation, synthesis, and effect of GcMAF in renowned scientific journals. The authors showed that GcMAF is produced by cells in the immune system and is used as an internal messaging substance in order to, for example, transmit a command to T cells or macrophages to attack a tumor. They were also successful in clarifying the biosynthesis of GcMAF and developing an analogous synthesis in the laboratory.
This technically produced GcMAF, which is identical to the natural version, is now being used in many ways in order to explore its entire spectrum of efficacy as a signal substance. Yamamoto et al (Yamamoto 2008a, 2008b, 2009) reported on spectacularly successful treatment of various tumors. Remission rates of 100% were described in studies on the treatment of prostate tumors, breast tumors, and even AIDS. However, even the layman interested in science knows that in studies with many subjects, there is never a success rate of 100% of all participants. One would be happy enough if there were a long-term success rate of 40% of all participants. Thus, the results in Yamamoto’s clinical study were viewed with much skepticism, but the molecular biological scientific results could mostly be reproduced and are thus justified.
Yamamoto et al. (2002) found, for example, that GcMAF had direct anti-angiogenetic effects on endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo and also negatively influenced various chemotactic substances that are upregulated by tumors to quicken their growth.
Other scientiests (Fannon et al. 2003, Rehder et al. 2009), who did essential work on GcMAF were able to confirm that GcMAF is a substance that is produced by the immune system and used as a signal substance, and indeed is able to stimulate macrophages to attack tumors.
In several papers, Fannon et al. (2006) refer to that and show in a mouse xenograft that GcMAF is an effective inhibitor of prostate tumors, and demonstrate that its ability to inhibit tumor growth in vivo is partially due to its anti-angiogenetic characteristics. Angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels. Tumors have a higher need for nutrients and thus stimulate formation of blood vessels. The anti-angiogenetic characteristics of GcMAF lead to a reduction in the amount of blood-supplying capillaries in tumors.
Another interesting result of the study is the strong inhibitory effect of GcMAF on prostate tumor cells, independent of macrophage activation and hindering both proliferation and migration of tumor cells. GcMAF reduces expression of UPAR (Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor) so that UPAR might be more suitable as a marker for GcMAT activity than nagalase (Fannon 2010).
Fannon et al. (2003) specifically showed that there is an optimal dosage of GcMAF, i.e. lower or higher dosages diminish the success of treatment. The optimal dosage proved to be 4 ng/kg/d. Dosages of 4 ng/kg every 4 days were less successful, as were higher dosages. For a person weighing approximately 70 kg, the optimal dosage would be 280 ng/d. Because signal transmission in the human immune system may take up to 48 hours, it appears expedient to administer GcMAF in humans every 2-3 days. A study to determine the correct dosages can be expected to describe these ratios more accurately.
The concentration-dependent stimulation of the immune system by GcMAF reflects classic activity of signal substances toward receptors: there is an optimal concentration of signal substances. Our hearing functions in a similar way. If the volume is set too low on the radio, then the hearing (receptor) cannot understand the message. If the volume is turned up too high, the hearing cannot interpret the message. In our own examinations, we were able to confirm the findings of Fannon et al.
Figure 1: Activation of macrophages in dependency on GcMAF concentrations. As the figure shows, concentrations of 50-70 ng/ml GcMAF lead to higher cell stimulation than concentrations lower than 50 ng/ml and higher than 70 ng/ml (inhibition). This is a typical example of stimulation with optimal concentrations, particularly here with RAW cells, which must be redefined in use with other cells.